There are HTML elements and attributes that we use every day. Headings, paragraphs, lists and images are the mainstay of every Web developer’s toolbox. Perhaps the most common tool of all is the anchor. The humble
a element is what joins documents together to create the gloriously chaotic collection we call the World Wide Web.
Anatomy of an Anchor
The power of the anchor element lies in the
href attribute, short for hypertext reference. This creates a one-way link to another resource, usually another page on the Web:
href attribute sits in the opening
a tag and some descriptive text sits between the opening and closing tags:
<a href="http://allinthehead.com/">Drew McLellan</a>
“Whoop-dee-freakin’-doo,” I hear you say, “this is pretty basic stuff” – and you’re quite right. But there’s more to the anchor element than just the
The Theory of
You might be familiar with the
rel attribute from the
link element. I bet you’ve got something like this in the
head of your documents:
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" media="screen" href="styles.css" />
rel attribute describes the relationship between the linked document and the current document. In this case, the value of
rel is “stylesheet”. This means that the linked document is the stylesheet for the current document: that’s its relationship.
Here’s another common use of
<link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="my RSS feed" href="index.xml" />
This describes the relationship of the linked file – an RSS feed – as “alternate”: an alternate view of the current document.
Both of those examples use the
link element but you are free to use the
rel attribute in regular hyperlinks. Suppose you’re linking to your RSS feed in the
body of your page:
Subscribe to <a href="index.xml">my RSS feed</a>.
You can add extra information to this anchor using the
Subscribe to <a href="index.xml" rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml">my RSS feed</a>.
There’s no prescribed list of values for the
rel attribute so you can use whatever you decide is semantically meaningful. Let’s say you’ve got a complex e-commerce application that includes a link to a help file. You can explicitly declare the relationship of the linked file as being “help”:
<a href="help.html" rel="help">need help?</a>
Although it’s completely up to you what values you use for the
rel attribute, some consensus is emerging in the form of microformats. Some of the simplest microformats make good use of
rel. For example, if you are linking to a license that covers the current document, use the rel-license microformat:
Licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons attribution license</a>
That describes the relationship of the linked document as “license.”
The rel-tag microformat goes a little further. It uses
rel to describe the final part of the URL of the linked file as a “tag” for the current document:
Learn more about <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microformats" rel="tag">semantic markup</a>
This states that the current document is being tagged with the value “Microformats.”
XFN, which stands for XHTML Friends Network, is a way of describing relationships between people:
<a href="http://allinthehead.com/" rel="friend">Drew McLellan</a>
This microformat makes use of a very powerful property of the
rel attribute. Like the
rel can take multiple values, separated by spaces:
<a href="http://allinthehead.com/" rel="friend met colleague">Drew McLellan</a>
Here I’m describing Drew as being a friend, someone I’ve met, and a colleague (because we’re both Web monkies).
You Say You Want a
rel describes the relationship of the linked resource to the current document, the
rev attribute describes the reverse relationship: it describes the relationship of the current document to the linked resource. Here’s an example of a link that might appear on
<a href="shoppingcart.html" rev="help">continue shopping</a>
rev attribute declares that the current document is “help” for the linked file.
The vote-links microformat makes use of the
rev attribute to allow you to qualify your links. By using the value “vote-for” you can describe your document as being an endorsement of the linked resource:
I agree with <a href="http://richarddawkins.net/home" rev="vote-for">Richard Dawkins</a>.
There’s a corresponding
vote-against value. This means that you can link to a document but explicitly state that you don’t agree with it.
I agree with <a href="http://richarddawkins.net/home" rev="vote-for">Richard Dawkins</a>
about those <a href="http://www.icr.org/" rev="vote-against">creationists</a>.
Of course there’s nothing to stop you using both
rev on the same hyperlink:
<a href="http://richarddawkins.net/home" rev="vote-for" rel="muse">Richard Dawkins</a>
The Wisdom of Crowds
The simplicity of
rev belies their power. They allow you to easily add extra semantic richness to your hyperlinks. This creates a bounty that can be harvested by search engines, aggregators and browsers. Make it your New Year’s resolution to make friends with these attributes and extend the power of hypertext.