A matter of protocol

The web is made of sugar, spice and all things nice. On closer inspection, this is what most URLs on the web are made of:

  1. The protocol—e.g. http—followed by a colon and two slashes (for which Sir Tim apologises).
  2. The domain—e.g. adactio.com or huffduffer.com.
  3. The path—e.g. /journal/tags/nerdiness or /js/global.js.

(I’m leaving out the whole messy business of port numbers—which can be appended to the domain with a colon—because just about everything on the web is served over the default port 80.)

Most URLs on the web are either written in full as absolute URLs:

a href="http://adactio.com/journal/tags/nerdiness"
script src="https://huffduffer.com/js/global.js"

Or else they’re written out relative to the domain, like this:

a href="/journal/tags/nerdiness"
script src="/js/global.js"

It turns out that URLs can not only be written relative to the linking document’s domain, but they can also be written relative to the linking document’s protocol:

a href="//adactio.com/journal/tags/nerdiness"
script src="//huffduffer.com/js/global.js"

If the linking document is being served over HTTP, then those URLs will point to http://adactio.com/journal/tags/nerdiness and https://huffduffer.com/js/global.js but if the linking document is being served over HTTP Secure, the URLs resolve to https://adactio.com/journal/tags/nerdiness and https://huffduffer.com/js/global.js.

Writing the src attribute relative to the linking document’s protocol is something that Remy is already doing with his :

<!--[if lt IE 9]>
<script src="//html5shim.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/html5.js"></script>

If you have a site that is served over both and , and you’re linking to a -hosted JavaScript library—something I highly recommend—then you should probably get in the habit of writing protocol-relative URLs:

<script src="//ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.4/jquery.min.js">

This is something that HTML5 Boilerplate does by default. HTML5 Boilerplate really is a great collection of fantastically useful tips and tricks …all wrapped in a terrible, terrible name.

Have you published a response to this? :

Previously on this day

15 years ago I wrote Sunshine state of mind

I’m taking a flight from Gatwick to Orlando first thing tomorrow. Jessica and I will be spending the next two weeks in Florida.

15 years ago I wrote Not waving but drowning

Looking at the unusually large waves being churned up on the shore of Brighton’s beach yesterday put me in mind of a particularly descriptive line from Joyce:

17 years ago I wrote Cadbury's ad upsets India

This could have come from Adbusters: