- First, build an old-fashioned website that uses hyperlinks and forms to pass information to the server. The server returns whole new pages with each request.
In fact, the only time you’d really notice a difference is when something goes wrong: in the Hijax model, everything just falls back to full-page requests but keeps on working. That’s the big difference between this approach and the current vogue for “single page apps” that do everything in the browser—when something goes wrong there, the user gets bupkis.
Pjax introduces an extra piece of the puzzle—which didn’t exist when I wrote Bulletproof Ajax—and that’s
pushState, part of HTML5’s History API, to keep the browser’s URL updated. Hence,
pushState + Ajax = Pjax.
What was fascinating though, was hearing why people were choosing to develop using Pjax. It isn’t necessarily that they care about progressive enhancement, robustness, and universal access. Rather, it’s often driven by the desire to stay within the server-side development environment that they’re comfortable with. See, for example, DHH’s explanation of why 37 Signals is using this approach:
So you get all the advantages of speed and snappiness without the degraded development experience of doing everything on the client.
A lot of James’s talk was focused on the user experience of the interfaces built with Hijax/Pjax/whatever. He had some terrific examples of how animation can make an enormous difference. That inspired me to do a little bit of tweaking to the Ajaxified/Hijaxified/Pjaxified portions of The Session.
Whenever you use Hijax to intercept a link, it’s now up to you to provide some sort of immediate feedback to the user that something is happening—normally the browser would take care of this (remember Netscape’s spinning lighthouse?)—but when you hijack that click, you’re basically saying “I’ll take care of this.” So you could, for example, display a spinning icon.
One little trick I’ve used is to insert an empty
progress element takes
value attributes to show how far along something has progressed:
<progress max="100" value="75">75%</progress>
But if you leave those out, then it’s an indeterminate progess bar:
The rendering of the progress bar will vary from browser to browser, and that’s just fine. Older browsers that don’t understand the
progress will display whatever’s between the opening and closing tags.
Voila! You’ve got a nice lightweight animation to show that an Ajax request is underway.