Unsolved Problems by Beth Dean
An Event Apart in Seattle continues. It’s the afternoon of day two and Beth Dean is here to give a talk called Unsolved Problems:
Technology products are being adapted faster than ever. We’ve spent a lot of time adopting new technology, but not as much time considering the social impact of doing so. This talk looks at large scale system design in the offline world, and takes lessons from them to our online work. You’ll learn how to expand your design approach from self-contained products, to considering the broader systems in which they exist.
Fun fact: An Event Apart was the first conference that Beth attended over ten years ago.
Who recognises this guy on screen? It’s Robert Stack, the creepy host of Unsolved Mysteries. It was kind of like the X-Files. The X-Files taught Beth to be a sceptic. Imagine Beth’s surprise when her job at Facebook led her to actual conspiracies. It’s been a hard year, what with Cambridge Analytica and all.
Beth’s team is focused on how people experience ads, while the whole rest of the company is focused on ads from the opposite end. She’s the Fox Mulder of the company.
Technology today has incredible reach. In recent years, we’ve seen 1:1 harm. That’s when a product negatively effects someone directly. In their book, Eric and Sara point out that Facebook is often the first company to solve these problems.
1:many harm is another use of technology. Designing in isolation isn’t new to tech. We’ve seen 1:many harm in urban planning. Brasilia is a beautiful city that nobody wants to live in. You need messy, mixed-use spaces, not a space designed for cars. Niemeier planned for efficiency, not reality.
Eichler buildings were supposed to be egalitarian. But everything that makes these single-story homes great places to live also makes them great targets for criminals. Isolation by intentional design leads to a less safe place to live.
One of Frank Gehry’s buildings turned into a deathtrap when it was covered with snow. And in summer, the reflective material makes it impossible to sit on side of it. His Facebook office building has some “interesting” restroom allocation, which was planned last.
Ohio had a deer overpopulation problem. So the solution they settled on was to introduce coyotes. Now there’s a coyote problem. When coyotes breed with stray dogs, they start to get aggressive and they hunt in packs. This is the cobra effect: when the solution to your problem makes the problem worse. The British government offered a bounty for cobras in India. So people bred snakes for the bounty. So they got rid of the bounty …and then all those snakes were released into the wild.
So-called “ride sharing” apps are about getting one person from point A to point B. They’re not about making getting around easier in general.
Google traffic directions don’t factor in the effect of Google giving everyone the same traffic directions.
AirBnB drives up rent …even though it started out as a way to help people who couldn’t make rent. Sounds like cobra farming.
Automating Inequality by Virgina Eubanks is an excellent book about being dropped by health insurance. An algorithm did it. By taking broken systems and automating them, we accelerate disenfranchisement.
Then there’s Facebook. Psychological warfare is not new. Radio and television have influenced elections long before the internet. Politicians changed their language to fit the medium of radio.
The internet has removed all friction that helps us behave cooperatively. Removing friction was once our goal, but it turns out that friction is sometimes useful. The internet has turned into an outrage machine.
Solving problems in the isolation of our own products ignores the broader context of society.
The Waze map reflects cities as they are, not the way someone wishes them to be.
—Noam Bardin, CEO of Waze
From bulletin boards to today’s web, the internet has always been toxic because human nature is toxic. Maybe that’s the bigger problem to solve.
We can look to other industries…
Ideo redesigned the hospital experience. People were introduced to their entire care staff on their first visit. Sloan Kettering took a similar approach. Artwork serves as wayfinding. Every room has its own bathroom. A Chicago hostpital included gardens because it improves recovery.
These hospital examples all:
- Designed for an intended outcome.
- Met people where they were.
- Strengthened existing support networks.
We’ve seen some bad examples from urban planning, but there are success stories too.
A person on a $30 bicycle is as important as someone in a $30,000 car, said Enrique Peñalosa.
Copenhagen once faced awful traffic congestion. Now people cycle everywhere. It’s the fastest way to get around. The city is designed for bicycles first. People rode more when it felt safer. It’s no coincidence that Copenhagen ranks as one of the most livable cities in the world.
Scandinavian prisons use a concept called restorative justice. The staff plays badminton with the inmates. They cook together. Treat people like dirt and they will act like dirt. Treat people like people and they will act like people. Recividism rates in Norway are now way low.
- Design for dignity and cooperation.
- Solve for everyone in a system.
- Policy should reflect intended outcomes.
The deHavilland Comet was made of metal. After a few blew apart at the seams, they switched from rivetted material. Airlines today develop a culture of crew resource management that encourages people to speak up.
- Plan for every point of failure.
- Empower everyone on a team to solve problems.
What can we do?
- Policies affect design. We need to work more closely with policy makers.
- Question access. Are all opinions equal? Where are computers making decisions that should involve people.
- Forget neutrality. Technology is not neutral. Neutrality allows us to abdicate responsibility.
- Stay a litte bit paranoid. Think about what the worst case scenario might be.
Make people better curators. How might we allow people to assess the veracity of information for themselves? What if we gave people better tools to affect their overall experience, not just small customisations?
We can use what we know about people to bring out their best behaviours. We can empower people to take action instead of just outrage.
What if we designed for the good of the community instead of the success of individuals. Like the Vauban in Freiburg! It was squatted, and the city gave control to the squatters to create an eco neighbourhood with affordable housing.
We need to think about what kind of worlds we want to create. What if we made the web less like a mall and more like a public park?
These are hard problems. But we solve hard technology problems every day. We could be the first generation of builders to solve technology’s hard problems.