Tags: browsers

613

sparkline

Friday, March 22nd, 2019

All you need to know about hyphenation in CSS | Clagnut by Richard Rutter

Everything you need to know about hyphenation on the web today, from Rich’s galaxy brain.

Hyphenation is a perfect example of progressive enhancement, so you can start applying the above now if you think your readers will benefit from it – support among browsers will only increase.

I Used The Web For A Day On Internet Explorer 8 — Smashing Magazine

A fascinating look at the web today with IE8. And it’s worth remembering who might be experiencing the web like this:

Whoever they are, you can bet they’re not using an old browser just to annoy you. Nobody deliberately chooses a worse browsing experience.

The article also outlines two possible coping strategies:

  1. Polyfilling Strive for feature parity for all by filling in the missing browser functionality.
  2. Progressive Enhancement Start from a core experience, then use feature detection to layer on functionality.

Take a wild guess as to which strategy I support.

There’s a bigger point made at the end of all this:

IE8 is today’s scapegoat. Tomorrow it’ll be IE9, next year it’ll be Safari, a year later it might be Chrome. You can swap IE8 out for ‘old browser of choice’. The point is, there will always be some divide between what browsers developers build for, and what browsers people are using. We should stop scoffing at that and start investing in robust, inclusive engineering solutions. The side effects of these strategies tend to pay dividends in terms of accessibility, performance and network resilience, so there’s a bigger picture at play here.

Friday, March 15th, 2019

Wednesday, March 13th, 2019

Chromium Blog: Chrome Lite Pages - For a faster, leaner loading experience

My first reaction to this was nervousness. Of all the companies to trust with intercepting and rerouting page requests, Google aren’t exactly squeeky clean, what with that whole surveillance business model of theirs.

Still, this ultimately seems to be a move to improve the end user experience, and I’m glad to see this clarification:

Lite pages are only triggered for extremely slow sites, so we encourage developers to measure how well their pages are currently performing over slow networks.

Lite pages as a badge of shame (much like AMP in my eyes).

First Web browser revived during hackathon - YouTube

This is the lovely little film about our WorldWideWeb hack project. It was shown yesterday at CERN during the Web@30 celebrations. That was quite a special moment.

Tuesday, March 5th, 2019

Move Fast and Don’t Break Things by Scott Jehl

Scott Jehl is speaking at An Event Apart in Seattle—yay! His talk is called Move Fast and Don’t Break Things:

Performance is a high priority for any site of scale today, but it can be easier to make a site fast than to keep it that way. As a site’s features and design evolves, its performance is often threatened for a number of reasons, making it hard to ensure fast, resilient access to services. In this session, Scott will draw from real-world examples where business goals and other priorities have conflicted with page performance, and share some strategies and practices that have helped major sites overcome those challenges to defend their speed without compromises.

The title is a riff on the “move fast and break things” motto, which comes from a more naive time on the web. But Scott finds part of it relatable. Things break. We want to move fast without breaking things.

This is a performance talk, which is another kind of moving fast. Scott starts with a brief history of not breaking websites. He’s been chipping away at websites for 20 years now. Remember Positioning Is Everything? How about Quirksmode? That one's still around.

In the early days, building a website that was "not broken" was difficult, but it was difficult for different reasons. We were focused on consistency. We had deal with differences between browsers. There were two ways of dealing with browsers: browser detection and feature detection.

The feature-based approach was more sustainable but harder. It fits nicely with the practice of progressive enhancement. It's a good mindset for dealing with the explosion of devices that kicked off later. Touch screens made us rethink our mouse and hover-centric matters. That made us realise how much keyboard-driven access mattered all along.

Browsers exploded too. And our data networks changed. With this explosion of considerations, it was clear that our early ideas of “not broken” didn’t work. Our notion of what constituted “not broken” was itself broken. Consistency just doesn’t cut it.

But there was a comforting part to this too. It turned out that progressive enhancement was there to help …even though we didn’t know what new devices were going to appear. This is a recurring theme throughout Scott’s career. So given all these benefits of progressive enhancement, it shouldn’t be surprising that it turns out to be really good for performance too. If you practice progressive enhancement, you’re kind of a performance expert already.

People started talking about new performance metrics that we should care about. We’ve got new tools, like Page Speed Insights. It gives tangible advice on how to test things. Web Page Test is another great tool. Once you prove you’re a human, Web Page Test will give you loads of details on how a page loaded. And you get this great visual timeline.

This is where we can start to discuss the metrics we want to focus on. Traditionally, we focused on file size, which still matters. But for goal-setting, we want to focus on user-perceived metrics.

First Meaningful Content. It’s about how soon appears to be useful to a user. Progressive enhancement is a perfect match for this! When you first make request to a website, it’s usually for a web page. But to render that page, it might need to request more files like CSS or JavaScript. All of this adds up. From a user perspective, if the HTML is downloaded, but the browser can’t render it, that’s broken.

The average time for this on the web right now is around six seconds. That’s broken. The render blockers are the problem here.

Consider assets like scripts. Can you get the browser to load them without holding up the rendering of the page? If you can add async or defer to a script element in the head, you should do that. Sometimes that’s not an option though.

For CSS, it’s tricky. We’ve delivered the HTML that we need but we’ve got to wait for the CSS before rendering it. So what can you bundle into that initial payload?

You can user server push. This is a new technology that comes with HTTP2. H2, as it’s called, is very performance-focused. Just turning on H2 will probably make your site faster. Server push allows the server to send files to the browser before the browser has even asked for them. You can do this with directives in Apache, for example. You could push CSS whenever an HTML file is requested. But we need to be careful not to go too far. You don’t want to send too much.

Server push is great in moderation. But it is new, and it may not even be supported by your server.

Another option is to inline CSS (well, actually Scott, this is technically embedding CSS). It’s great for first render, but isn’t it wasteful for caching? Scott has a clever pattern that uses the Cache API to grab the contents of the inlined CSS and put a copy of its contents into the cache. Then it’s ready to be served up by a service worker.

By the way, this isn’t just for CSS. You could grab the contents of inlined SVGs and create cached versions for later use.

So inlining CSS is good, but again, in moderation. You don’t want to embed anything bigger than 15 or 20 kilobytes. You might want separate out the critical CSS and only embed that on first render. You don’t need to go through your CSS by hand to figure out what’s critical—there are tools that to do this that integrate with your build process. Embed that critical CSS into the head of your document, and also start preloading the full CSS. Here’s a clever technique that turns a preload link into a stylesheet link:

<link rel="preload" href="site.css" as="style" onload="this.rel='stylesheet'">

Also include this:

<noscript><link rel="stylesheet" href="site.css"></noscript>

You can also optimise for return visits. It’s all about the cache.

In the past, we might’ve used a cookie to distinguish a returning visitor from a first-time visitor. But cookies kind of suck. Here’s something that Scott has been thinking about: service workers can intercept outgoing requests. A service worker could send a header that matches the current build of CSS. On the server, we can check for this header. If it’s not the latest CSS, we can server push the latest version, or inline it.

The neat thing about service workers is that they have to install before they take over. Scott makes use of this install event to put your important assets into a cache. Only once that is done to we start adding that extra header to requests.

Watch out for an article on the Filament Group blog on this technique!

With performance, more weight doesn’t have to mean more wait. You can have a heavy page that still appears to load quickly by altering the prioritisation of what loads first.

Web pages are very heavy now. There’s a real cost to every byte. Tim’s WhatDoesMySiteCost.com shows that the CNN home page costs almost fifty cents to load for someone in America!

Time to interactive. This is is the time before a user can use what’s on the screen. The issue is almost always with JavaScript. The page looks usable, but you can’t use it yet.

Addy Osmani suggests we should get to interactive in under five seconds on a 3G network on a median mobile device. Your iPhone is not a median mobile device. A typical phone takes six seconds to process a megabyte of JavaScript after it has downloaded. So even if the network is fast, the time to interactive can still be very long.

This all comes down to our industry’s increasing reliance on JavaScript just to render content. There seems to be pendulum shifts between client-side and server-side rendering. It’s been great to see libraries like Vue and Ember embrace server-side rendering.

But even with server-side rendering, there’s still usually a rehydration step where all the JavaScript gets parsed and that really affects time to interaction.

Code splitting can help. Webpack can do this. That helps with first-party JavaScript, but what about third-party JavaScript?

Scott believes easier to make a fast website than to keep a fast website. And that’s down to all the third-party scripts that people throw in: analytics, ads, tracking. They can wreak havoc on all your hard work.

These scripts apparently contribute to the business model, so it can be hard for us to make the case for removing them. Tools like SpeedCurve can help people stay informed on the impact of these scripts. It allows you to set up performance budgets and it shows you when pages go over budget. When that happens, we have leverage to step in and push back.

Assuming you lose that battle, what else can we do?

These days, lots of A/B testing and personalisation happens on the client side. The tooling is easy to use. But they are costly!

A typical problematic pattern is this: the server sends one version of the page, and once the page is loaded, the whole page gets replaced with a different layout targeted at the user. This leads to a terrifying new metric that Scott calls Second Meaningful Content.

Assuming we can’t remove the madness, what can we do? We could at least not do this for first-time visits. We could load the scripts asyncronously. We can preload the scripts at the top of the page. But ideally we want to move these things to the server. Server-side A/B testing and personalisation have existed for a while now.

Scott has been experimenting with a middleware solution. There’s this idea of server workers that Cloudflare is offering. You can manipulate the page that gets sent from the server to the browser—all the things you would do for an A/B test. Scott is doing this by using comments in the HTML to demarcate which portions of the page should be filtered for testing. The server worker then deletes a block for some users, and deletes a different block for other users. Scott has written about this approach.

The point here isn’t about using Cloudflare. The broader point is that it’s much faster to do these things on the server. We need to defend our user’s time.

Another issue, other than third-party scripts, is the page weight on home pages and landing pages. Marketing teams love to fill these things with enticing rich imagery and carousels. They’re really difficult to keep performant because they change all the time. Sometimes we’re not even in control of the source code of these pages.

We can advocate for new best practices like responsive images. The srcset attribute on the img element; the picture element for when you need more control. These are great tools. What’s not so great is writing the markup. It’s confusing! Ideally we’d have a CMS drive this, but a lot of the time, landing pages fall outside of the purview of the CMS.

Scott has been using Vue.js to make a responsive image builder—a form that people can paste their URLs into, which spits out the markup to use. Anything we can do by creating tools like these really helps to defend the performance of a site.

Another thing we can do is lazy loading. Focus on the assets. The BBC homepage uses some lazy loading for images—they blink into view as your scroll down the page. They use LazySizes, which you can find on Github. You use data- attributes to list your image sources. Scott realises that LazySizes is not progressive enhancement. He wouldn’t recommend using it on all images, just some images further down the page.

But thankfully, we won’t need these workarounds soon. Soon we’ll have lazy loading in browsers. There’s a lazyload attribute that we’ll be able to set on img and iframe elements:

<img src=".." alt="..." lazyload="on">

It’s not implemented yet, but it’s coming in Chrome. It might be that this behaviour even becomes the default way of loading images in browsers.

If you dig under the hood of the implementation coming in Chrome, it actually loads all the images, but the ones being lazyloaded are only sent partially with a 206 response header. That gives enough information for the browser to lay out the page without loading the whole image initially.

To wrap up, Scott takes comfort from the fact that there are resilient patterns out there to help us. And remember, it is our job to defend the user’s experience.

Thursday, February 28th, 2019

WorldWideWeb coverage

Remy’s keeping a list of hyperlinks to stories covering our recent hack week at CERN.

Saturday, February 23rd, 2019

AddyOsmani.com - JavaScript Loading Priorities in Chrome

A table showing how browsers prioritise a) the loading of JavaScript and b) the execution of JavaScript.

Friday, February 22nd, 2019

nexus-project / nexus-browser · GitLab

Here’s the source code for the WorldWideWeb project we did at CERN.

Thursday, February 21st, 2019

WWW: Where’s the Writable Web?

Prompted by our time at CERN, Remy ponders why web browsers (quite quickly) diverged from the original vision of being read/write software.

Wednesday, February 20th, 2019

WorldWideWeb, 30 years on – Dan Q

This is a lovely write-up of the WorldWideWeb hack week at CERN:

The Web is a success story in open standards, natural and by-design progressive enhancement, and the future-proof archivability of human-readable code.

Sunday, February 17th, 2019

Timelines of the web

Recreating the original WorldWideWeb browser was an exercise in digital archeology. With a working NeXT machine in the room, Kimberly was able to examine the source code for the first every browser and discover a treasure trove within. Like this gem in HTUtils.h:

#define TCP_PORT 80 /* Allocated to http by Jon Postel/ISI 24-Jan-92 */

Sure enough, by June of 1992 port 80 was documented as being officially assigned to the World Wide Web (Gopher got port 70). Jean-François Groff—who worked on the World Wide Web project with Tim Berners-Lee—told us that this was a moment they were very pleased about. It felt like this project of theirs was going places.

Jean-François also told us that the WorldWideWeb browser/editor was kind of like an advanced prototype. The idea was to get something up and running as quickly as possible. Well, the NeXT operating system had a very robust Text Object, so the path of least resistance for Tim Berners-Lee was to take the existing word-processing software and build a hypertext component on top of it. Likewise, instead of creating a brand new format, he used the existing SGML format and added one new piece: linking with A tags.

So the WorldWideWeb application was kind of like a word processor and document viewer mashed up with hypertext. Ted Nelson complains to this day that the original sin of the web was that it borrowed this page-based metaphor. But Nelson’s Project Xanadu, originally proposed in 1974 wouldn’t become a working reality until 2014—a gap of forty years. Whereas Tim Berners-Lee proposed his system in March 1989 and had working code within a year. There’s something to be said for being pragmatic and working with what you’ve got.

The web was also a mashup of ideas. Hypertext existed long before the web—Ted Nelson coined the term in 1963. There were conferences and academic discussions devoted to hypertext and hypermedia. But almost all the existing hypertext systems—including Tim Berners-Lee’s own ENQUIRE system from the early 80s—were confined to a local machine. Meanwhile networked computers were changing everything. First there was the ARPANET, then the internet. Tim Berners-Lee’s ambitious plan was to mash up hypertext with networks.

Going into our recreation of WorldWideWeb at CERN, I knew I wanted to convey this historical context somehow.

The World Wide Web officially celebrates its 30th birthday in March of this year. It’s kind of an arbitrary date: it’s the anniversary of the publication of Information Management: A Proposal. Perhaps a more accurate date would be the day the first website—and first web server—went online. But still. Let’s roll with this date of March 12, 1989. I thought it would be interesting not only to look at what’s happened between 1989 and 2019, but also to look at what happened between 1959 and 1989.

So now I’ve got two time cones that converge in the middle: 1959 – 1989 and 1989 – 2019. For the first time period, I made categories of influences: formats, hypertext, networks, and computing. For the second time period, I catalogued notable results: browsers, servers, and the evolution of HTML.

I did a little bit of sketching and quickly realised that these converging timelines could be represented somewhat like particle collisions. Once I had that idea in my head, I knew how I would be spending my time during the hack week.

Rather than jumping straight into the collider visualisation, I took some time to make a solid foundation to build on. I wanted to be sure that the timeline itself would be understable even if it were, say, viewed in the first ever web browser.

Progressive enhancement. Marking up (and styling) an interactive timeline that looks good in a modern browser and still works in the first ever web browser.

I marked up each timeline as an ordered list of h-events:

<li class="h-event y1968">
  <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NLS_%28computer_system%29" class="u-url">
    <time class="dt-start" datetime="1968-12-09">1968</time>
    <abbr class="p-name" title="oN-Line System">NLS</abbr>
  </a>
</li>

With the markup in place, I could concentrate on making it look halfway decent. For small screens, the layout is very basic—just a series of lists. When the screen gets wide enough, I lay those lists out horzontally one on top of the other. In this view, you can more easily see when events coincide. For example, ENQUIRE, Usenet, and Smalltalk all happen in 1980. But the real beauty comes when the screen is wide enough to display everthing at once. You can see how an explosion of activity in the early 90s. In 1994 alone, we get the release of Netscape Navigator, the creation of HTTPS, and the launch of Amazon.com.

The whole thing is powered by CSS transforms and positioning. Each year on a timeline has its own class that gets moved to the correct chronological point using calc(). I wanted to use translateX() but I couldn’t get the maths to work for that, so I had use plain ol’ left and right:

.y1968 {
  left: calc((1968 - 1959) * (100%/30) - 5em);
}

For events before 1989, it’s the distance of the event from 1959. For events after 1989, it’s the distance of the event from 2019:

.y2014 {
  right: calc((2019 - 2014) * (100%/30) - 5em);
}

(Each h-event has a width of 5em so that’s where the extra bit at the end comes from.)

I had to do some tweaking for legibility: bunches of events happening around the same time period needed to be separated out so that they didn’t overlap too much.

As a finishing touch, I added a few little transitions when the page loaded so that the timeline fans out from its centre point.

Et voilà!

Progressive enhancement. Marking up (and styling) an interactive timeline that looks good in a modern browser and still works in the first ever web browser.

I fiddled with the content a bit after peppering Robert Cailliau with questions over lunch. And I got some very valuable feedback from Jean-François. Some examples he provided:

1971: Unix man pages, one of the first instances of writing documents with a markup language that is interpreted live by a parser before being presented to the user.

1980: Usenet News, because it was THE everyday discussion medium by the time we created the web technology, and the Web first embraced news as a built-in information resource, then various platforms built on the web rendered it obsolete.

1982: Literary Machines, Ted Nelson’s book which was on our desk at all times

I really, really enjoyed building this “collider” timeline. It was a chance for me to smash together my excitement for web history with my enjoyment of using the raw materials of the web; HTML and CSS in this case.

The timeline pales in comparison to the achievement of the rest of the team in recreating the WorldWideWeb application but I was just glad to be able to contribute a little something to the project.

Hello WorldWideWeb.

Saturday, February 16th, 2019

FOREVERYONE.NET

I linked to this a while back but now this great half hour documentary by Jessica Yu is ready and you can watch the whole thing online: Tim Berners-Lee, the birth of the web, and where the web has gone since.

In the scenes describing the early web, there’s footage of the recreated Line Mode Browser—how cool is that‽

Recreating the First Web Browser at CERN | U.S. Mission to International Organizations in Geneva

The US Mission to the UN in Geneva came by to visit us during our hackweek at CERN.

“Our hope is that over the next few days we are going to recreate the experience of what it would be like using that browser, but doing it in a way that anyone using a modern web browser can experience,” explains team member Jeremy Keith. The aim is to “give people the feeling of what it would have been like, in terms of how it looked, how it felt, the fonts, the rendering, the windows, how you navigated from link to link.”

WorldWideWeb

Nine people came together at CERN for five days and made something amazing. I still can’t quite believe it.

Coming into this, I thought it was hugely ambitious to try to not only recreate the experience of using the first ever web browser (called WorldWideWeb, later Nexus), but to also try to document the historical context of the time. Now that it’s all done, I’m somewhat astounded that we managed to achieve both.

Want to see the final result? Here you go:

worldwideweb.cern.ch

That’s the website we built. The call to action is hard to miss:

Launch WorldWideWeb

Behold! A simulation of using the first ever web browser, recreated inside your web browser.

Now you could try clicking around on the links on the opening doucment—remembering that you need to double-click on links to activate them—but you’ll quickly find that most of them don’t work. They’re long gone. So it’s probably going to be more fun to open a new page to use as your starting point. Here’s how you do that:

  1. Select Document from the menu options on the left.
  2. A new menu will pop open. Select Open from full document reference.
  3. Type a URL, like, say https://adactio.com
  4. Press that lovely chunky Open button.

You are now surfing the web through a decades-old interface. Double click on a link to open it. You’ll notice that it opens in a new window. You’ll also notice that there’s no way of seeing the current URL. Back then, the idea was that you would navigate primarily by clicking on links, creating your own “associative trails”, as first envisioned by Vannevar Bush.

But the WorldWideWeb application wasn’t just a browser. It was a Hypermedia Browser/Editor.

  1. From that Document menu you opened, select New file…
  2. Type the name of your file; something like test.html
  3. Start editing the heading and the text.
  4. In the main WorldWideWeb menu, select Links.
  5. Now focus the window with the document you opened earlier (adactio.com).
  6. With that window’s title bar in focus, choose Mark all from the Links menu.
  7. Go back to your test.html document, and highlight a piece of text.
  8. With that text highlighted, click on Link to marked from the Links menu.

If you want, you can even save the hypertext document you created. Under the Document menu there’s an option to Save a copy offline (this is the one place where the wording of the menu item isn’t exactly what was in the original WorldWideWeb application). Save the file so you can open it up in a text editor and see what the markup would’ve looked it.

I don’t know about you, but I find this utterly immersive and fascinating. Imagine what it must’ve been like to browse, create, and edit like this. Hypertext existed before the web, but it was confined to your local hard drive. Here, for the first time, you could create links across networks!

After five days time-travelling back thirty years, I have a new-found appreciation for what Tim Berners-Lee created. But equally, I’m in awe of what my friends created thirty years later.

Remy did all the JavaScript for the recreated browser …in just five days!

Kimberly was absolutely amazing, diving deep into the original source code of the application on the NeXT machine we borrowed. She uncovered some real gems.

Of course Mark wanted to make sure the font was as accurate as possible. He and Brian went down quite a rabbit hole, and with remote help from David Jonathan Ross, they ended up recreating entire families of fonts.

John exhaustively documented UI patterns that Angela turned into marvelous HTML and CSS.

Through it all, Craig and Martin put together the accomanying website. Personally, I think the website is freaking awesome—it’s packed with fascinating information! Check out the family tree of browsers that Craig made.

What a team!

Friday, February 15th, 2019

Recreating the first web browser at CERN | Flickr

Photos from earlier this week:

In a small room in CERN’s Data Center, an international group of nine developers is taking a plunge back in time to the beginnings of the World Wide Web. Their aim is to enable the whole world to experience what the web looked like viewed within the very first browser developed by Tim Berners-Lee.

Recreating the First Web Browser at CERN

Thursday, February 14th, 2019

Public Affairs Office on Instagram

A little teaser from U.S. MIssion at the U.N. in Geneva:

This year marks the 30th Anniversary of the birth of the #WorldWideWeb. A team of #webdevelopers are working to make it possible for the public to experience the #FirstWebBrowser as it looked on #TimBernersLees’s computer @CERN…

Tuesday, February 12th, 2019

Back at CERN

We got the band back together.

In September of 2013, I had the great pleasure and privilege of going to CERN with a bunch of very smart people. I’m not sure how I managed to slip by. We were there to recreate the experience of using the line-mode browser. As I wrote at the time:

Just to be clear, the line-mode browser wasn’t the world’s first web browser. That honour goes to Tim Berners-Lee’s WorldWideWeb programme. But whereas WorldWideWeb only ran on NeXT machines, the line-mode browser worked cross-platform and was, therefore, instrumental in demonstrating the power of the web as a universally-accessible medium.

In the run-up to the 30th anniversary of the original (vague but exciting) proposal for what would become the World Wide Web, we’ve been invited back to try to recreate the experience of using that first web browser, the one that one ever ran on NeXT machines.

I missed the first day due to travel madness—flying back from Interaction 19 in Seattle during snowmageddon to Heathrow and then to Geneva—but by the time I arrived, my hackmates had already made a great start in identifying the objectives:

  1. Give people an understanding of the user experience of the WorldWideWeb browser.
  2. Demonstrate that a read/write philosophy was there from the beginning.
  3. Give context—what was going on at the time?

That second point is crucial. WorldWideWeb wasn’t just a web browser; it was a browser/editor. That’s by far the biggest change in terms of the original vision of the web and what we ended up getting from Mosaic onwards.

Remy is working hard on the first point. He documented the first day and now on the second day, he’s made enormous progress already.

I’m focusing on point number three. I want to show the historical context for the World Wide Web. Here’s my plan…

Seeing as we’re coming up on the thirtieth anniversary, I thought it would be interesting to take the year of the proposal (1989) and look back in a time cone of thirty years previous to that at the influences on Tim Berners-Lee. I also want to look at what has happened with the web in the thirty years since the proposal. So the date of the proposal will be a centre point, with the timespan of 1959-1989 converging on it from the past, and the timespan of 1989-2019 diverging from it into the future. I hope it could make for a nice visualisation. Maybe I could try to get it look like data from a particle collision.

We’re here till the weekend and everyone else has already made tremendous progress. Kimberly has been hacking the Gibson …well, that’s what it looked like when she was deep in the code of the NeXT machine we’ve borrowed from Musée Bolo (merci beaucoup!).

We took a little time out for a tour of the data centre. Oh, and at lunch time, we sat with Robert Cailliau and grilled him with questions about the birth of the web. Quite a day!

Now it’s time for me to hit the hay and prepare for another day of hacking in this extraordinary place.

Monday, February 11th, 2019

A Simpler Web: I Concur

Tales of over-engineering, as experienced by Bridget. This resonates with me, and I think she’s right when she says that these things go in cycles. The pendulum always ends up swinging the other way eventually.